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Abstract: Artwork in which the subject matter is stated in a brief, simplified manner. Little or no attempt is made to represent images realistically, and objects are often simplified or distorted.
Abstract expressionism: abstract art expressing the artist's emotions toward a subject, medium or painting surface
Acrylic: A synthetic-base paint. Its working properties are similar to oil paint, although acrylic dries more quickly and forms a somewhat glossier surface.
Additive: Refers to the process of joining a series of parts together to create a sculpture.
Aerial perspective: Aerial or atmospheric perspective achieved by using bluer, lighter, and duller hues for distant objects in a two-dimensional work of art.
Aesthetics: A branch of philosophy; the study of art and theories about the nature and components of aesthetic experience. An idea of what is beautiful or artistic.
Airbrush: application of a fine spray of paint or dye with an atomizer powered by compressed air; compare spray paint.
Ambient Light: the available light completely surrounding a subject that is not introduced artificially.
Analogous: Refers to closely related colors; a color scheme that combines several hues next to each other on the color wheel.
Animation: production of successive positions of images or objects displayed in rapid succession to give the appearance of continuous motion.
Antique: made in, or typical of an earlier time; object esteemed for its artistry, beauty, or period of origin, usually with increased value due to age.
Aperture: the opening in a camera lens through which light passes; measured in f-stops.
Arbitrary colors: Colors selected and used without reference to those found in reality.
Architecture: unifying or coherent form or structure; method or style of building; art or practice of designing and building structures, especially habitable ones
Art criticism: An organized system for looking at the visual arts; a process of appraising what students should know and be able to do.
Art elements: Sensory components used to create works of art: line, color, shape/form, texture, value, space.
Art History: A record of the visual arts, incorporating information, interpretations, and judgments about art objects, artists, and conceptual influences on developments in the visual arts.
Aspect Ratio: The proportion of an image's size given in terms of the horizontal length verses the vertical height. An aspect ratio of 4:3 indicates that the image is 4/3 times as wide as it is high.
Assemblage: A three-dimensional composition in which a collection of objects is unified in a sculptural work.
Asymmetry: A balance of parts on opposite sides of a perceived midline, giving the appearance of equal visual weight.
Background: The part of the picture plane that seems to be farthest from the viewer.
Balance: The way in which the elements in visual arts are arranged to create a feeling of equilibrium in a work of art. The three types of balance are symmetry, asymmetry, and radial.
Baroque: Art characterized by dramatic ornamentation, light and shade, turbulent composition and exaggerated emotional. The word baroque comes from the Portuguese word meaning "irregularly shaped pearl." It was first used in the 17th century to describe something that did not meet the classical standards of the Renaissance. All available space on a canvas was filled with action, detail and movement.
Beta: Pre-release version of a new software program still in development, which is handed out to users for testing. The worst bugs are usually eliminated at the earlier alpha stage of development.
Bézier curve: Curved line invented by Pierre Bézier that connects a series of points (or ‘nodes’) in the smoothest possible way. The shape of the curve is governed by a series of complex mathematical formulae. They are used in computer graphics and CAD (computer-aided design).
Bleeding: In artwork, the effect of a dark color seeping through a lighter color to the surface.
Bit: short for binary digit, which in a computer is the smallest unit of storage.
Bit depth: (1-bit, 8-bit, 24-bit) The amount of information (black and white or color) a computer can discern for each bit of an image. 1-bit is black and white (off or on), 8-bit is 256 "shades", "values" or "levels" of gray or 256 colors, 24-bit is millions of colors.
Bitmap: A method of depicting a graphic image on a computer screen, a printer, or a scanner. As its name suggests, a bitmap is a map of dots--similar to what you see when you look at a newspaper photo under a strong magnifying glass. Bitmaps come in many file formats (GIF, JPEG, TIFF, BMP, PICT, and PCX, to name a few) and can be read by paint programs and image editors such as Adobe Photoshop. If you scale up a bitmap, it will look blocky.
Brightness: The amount of light and dark areas in an image.
Browse: To explore a computer system or network for particular files or information.
Browser: Any program that allows the user to search for and view data. Browsers are usually limited to a particular type of data. Web browsers allow access to the World Wide Web. Microsoft's Internet Explorer was the leading Web browser in 2004, acting as a graphical user interface to information available on the Internet – reading HTML documents and displaying them as graphical documents which may include images, video, audio, and hypertext links to other documents.
Brushwork: aesthetic quality of brushstrokes as seen in texture, placement, color etc, revealing the artist's approach, technique or mood; compare: calligraphy
Buffer: Part of the memory used to store data temporarily while it is waiting to be used. e.g. a program might store data in a printer buffer until the printer is ready to print it.
Byte: Short for binary term; a collection of computer bits; on many modern computers, a byte is equal to eight bits.
Cartoon character: A humorous interpretation of any person, animal, or thing that exist in a work of Art. They can be entirely fictional or based on real creatures.
CD-ROM: (Compact Disc-Read Only Memory) A storage disk for computer files; a CD-ROM can hold about 650 megabytes of data; you cannot replace the information on a CD-ROM as you can on a floppy disk or hard disk.
Collage: An artistic composition made of various materials (e.g., paper, cloth, or wood) glued on a surface.
Color relationships: Also called color schemes or harmonies. They refer to the relationships of colors on the color wheel. Basic color schemes include monochromatic, analogous, and complementary.
Color theory: An element of art. Color has three properties: hue, value, and intensity.
Color: The visual sensation dependent on the reflection or absorption of light from a given surface. The three characteristics of color are hue, value, and intensity.
Comic strip: A sequence of cartoon drawings depicting a story, often humorous, though adventures and soap opera-like dramas are also common.
Complementary colors: Colors opposite one another on the color wheel. Red/green, blue/orange, and yellow/violet are examples of complementary colors.
Composition: The organization of elements in a work of art.
Computer graphics: Use of computers to display and manipulate information in pictorial form. Input may be achieved by scanning an image, by drawing with a mouse or stylus on a graphics tablet, or by drawing directly on the screen with a light pen.
Content: Message, idea, or feelings expressed in a work of art.
Contour drawings: The drawing of an object as though the drawing tool is moving along all the edges and ridges of the form.
Contrast: Difference between two or more elements (e.g., value, color, texture) in a composition; juxtaposition of dissimilar elements in a work of art; also, the degree of difference between the lightest and darkest parts of a picture.
Cool colors: Colors suggesting coolness: blue, green, and violet.
Crop: An image processing method of removing the region near the edge of the image, but keeping a central area. Once an image is cropped, save the cropped version with a different name, retaining the original image.
Crosshatching: More than one set of close parallel lines that crisscross each other at angles, to model and indicate tone.
Cubism: Cubism developed in France between 1907 and the early 1920's. The name "Cubism" comes from an insult by another artist, Henri Matisse. He called a painting by Georges Braque: "petits cubes", or little cubes.
Curvature: The act of curving or bending. One of the characteristics of line.
Curvilinear: Formed or enclosed by curved lines.
Design: The plan, conception, or organization of a work of art; the arrangement of independent parts (the elements of art) to form a coordinated whole.
Digital image: A computer file which, when used in conjunction with the proper software, will display a picture on the computer screen or print out to a digital device such as a laser printer.
Digitize: To turn analogue signals into the binary data a computer can read. Any type of analogue signal can be digitized, including pictures, sound, video, or film. The result is files that can be manipulated, stored, or transmitted by computers.
Distortion: Condition of being twisted or bent out of shape. In art, distortion is often used as an expressive technique.
Dither: A way of arranging the dots in a digitized image that creates an optical illusion of more continuous colors or gray tones than the computer or device can actually display or print.
Dominance: The importance of the emphasis of one aspect in relation to all other aspects of a design.
Dot: The smallest element that can be printed by a digital printer.
Download: To "get" a file; to move a file electronically from one place (such as a Web page or server) to your machine (such as onto your hard drive or removable media).
Downsize: To reduce the file size of an image, by lowering the resolution and/or reducing the square measurement of the file.
Dpi: (dots per inch) Measure of resolution for a laser printer. See also: Ppi (pixels per inch)
Drawing: An art technique using pencil, pen, brush, charcoal, crayon, pastel or stylus with computer software.
Elements of art: Sensory components used to create works of art: line, color, shape/form, texture, value, space.
Emphasis: Special stress given to an element to make it stand out.
Exposure: In photographic terms is the product of the intensity of light and the time the light is allowed to act on the film, or digital camera sensor. In practical terms, the aperture controls intensity or amount of light and shutter speed controls the time.
Expressive content: Ideas that express ideas and moods.
Figurative: Pertaining to representation of form or figure in art.
File format: The specific way digital information is made and stored by the computer. Not all software applications can read and/or manipulate all file formats. (See: GIF, JPEG, TIFF.)
File Size: The size of an image in digital photography, measured in kilobytes (KB), megabytes (MB), or gigabytes (GB). File size is proportional to its pixel dimensions; images with more pixels may produce more detail at a given printed size, but they require more disk space to store and are slower to print.
Film: Photographic emulsion coated on a flexible, transparent base that records images or scenes.
Film Speed: The sensitivity of a film to light, indicated by a number such as ISO 100. The higher the number, the more sensitive or faster the film. (ISO stands for International Organization for Standardization)
Filter: Colored piece of glass or other transparent material used over the lens to emphasize, eliminate, or change the color of the entire scene or certain areas within a scene.
Focal Length: The distance between the film and the optical center of the lens when the lens is focused on infinity. The focal length of the lens on most adjustable cameras is marked in millimeters on the lens mount.
Focal point: The place in a work of art on which attention becomes centered because of an element emphasized in some way.
Focus: The adjustment of the distance setting on a lens to define the subject sharply.
Focus Range: The range within which a camera is able to focus on the selected subject; i.e., from 4 feet to infinity.
Foreground: Part of a two-dimensional artwork that appears to be nearer the viewer or in the front. Middle ground and background are the parts of the picture that appear to be farther and farthest away.
Form: A three-dimensional volume or the illusion of three dimensions (related to shape, which is two-dimensional); the particular characteristics of the visual elements of a work of art (as distinguished from its subject matter or content).
Fresco: A painting technique in which the pigments are dispersed in plain water and applied to a damp plaster wall. The wall becomes the binder, as well as the support
Function: The purpose and use of a work of art.
Genre: The representation of people, subjects, and scenes from everyday life.
Gesture drawing: The drawing of lines quickly and loosely to show movement in a subject.
GIF: (Graphics Interchange Format)A common graphic file format on the World Wide Web; used by online services and Web browsing software, GIFs contain information compressed into a relatively small file size and may display faster than other formats.
Gigabyte: (GB) A unit of measure consisting of one billion bytes (one thousand megabytes).
Glazing: Glass or acrylic set or made to be set in a frame that protects the artwork from light, dust and other environmental hazards. There are different levels of glazing, from lightweight acrylic and regular glass to more expensive specialty products like anti-glare and anti-reflective glazing.
Graininess: The sand-like or granular appearance of an image. Graininess becomes more pronounced with faster film and the degree of enlargement. In digital imaging, graininess may occur as a result of printing an image, the pixel resolution of which is too coarse, or as a result of using a printer with poor dot resolution.
Grayscale: A system of displaying images in gray tones (or "levels of gray"), simulating the continuous gray tones of a photograph. To achieve grayscale, a monitor must be able to display 2 to 16 bits of information per pixel. This allows the monitor to display a black or white pixel as well as several values between black and white.
Harmony: The principle of design that combines elements in a work of art to emphasize the similarities of separate but related parts.
Hieroglyphs: (Sacred Carvings) dating to about 3300 BC, are believed to be the oldest form of writing known to men. They became known in 1799 when a group of French soldiers digging in Rosetta, Egypt discovered a large dark stone (now known as the famous Rosetta Stone).
HTML: Standard for structuring and describing a document on the World Wide Web. The HTML (hypertext markup language) standard provides labels for constituent parts of a document (for example headings and paragraphs) and permits the inclusion of images, sounds, and ‘hyperlinks’ to other documents. A browser program is then used to convert this information into a graphical document on-screen. (see XHTML)
Hue: Refers to the name of a color (e.g., red, blue, yellow, orange).
Illustration: a visual representation (drawing, picture, or diagram) that is used make some subject more pleasing or easier to understand.
Illustrator: Made by Adobe, Illustrator is a vector drawing program. It is often used to draw illustrations, cartoons, diagrams, charts and logos. Unlike bitmap images that stores information in a grid of dots, Illustrator uses mathematical equations to draw out the shapes. This makes vector graphics scalable without the loss of resolution.
Image file size: The amount of computer storage space a file requires; usually measured in kilobytes (K) or megabytes (M, MB, mgs or "megs"). An image file that is 5 x 7 inches, 8-bit gray (as in a black and white photo), resolution 300dpi, is 3M in size.
Image size: The physical dimensions of the image as measured in the small squares (pixels) of a computer screen; an image filling a "typical" computer screen (13 inch diagonal) would be 640 x 480 pixels; compare to image file size above.
Impressionism: The name Impressionism comes from Claude Monet's painting Impression: Sunrise, which was shown at an exhibition in 1874. A critic used the word to make fun of all the works in the show, but the artists later adopted the word to describe themselves.
Installation art: The hanging of ordinary objects on museum walls or the combining of found objects to create something completely new. Later, installation art was extended to include art as a concept.
Intensity: Also called chroma or saturation. It refers to the brightness of a color (a color is full in intensity only when pure and unmixed). Color intensity can be changed by adding black, white, gray, or an opposite color on the color wheel.
JPEG: (Joint Photographic Experts group) Pronounced "JAY-peg", a graphic file format that compresses information about many colors (up to 16 million) in the image into a smaller file
JPG: This is the most common type of compressed image file format used in modern digital cameras. It is a "lossy" type of image storage because even in its highest quality mode, there is compression used to minimize its size.
Kilobyte: (KB) A unit of measure consisting of 1,024 bytes.
Landscape: A page that is orientated horizontally. It is wider than it is tall. It is sometimes referred to as "comic," due to the shape of frames in comic strips.
Lens: One or more pieces of optical glass or similar material designed to collect and focus rays of light to form a sharp image on the film or digital camera sensor.
Lighting Arrangement: The lighting arrangement for subject illumination which should consist of a minimum of 3 point balanced illumination; two (2) points of illumination should be placed at approximately 45 degrees on either side of the subject's face, the third point should be placed so as to illuminate the background uniformly.
Line art: Black and white art, usually some type of line drawing (such as that produced by pen and ink).
Line direction: Line direction may be horizontal, vertical, or diagonal.
Line quality: The unique character of a drawn line as it changes lightness/darkness, direction, curvature, or width.
Line: A point moving in space. Line can vary in width, length, curvature, color, or direction.
Linear perspective: A graphic system used by artists to create the illusion of depth and volume on a flat surface. The lines of buildings and other objects in a picture are slanted, making them appear to extend back into space.
Logo: A logo is a small piece of art together with its logotype to form a trademark or commercial brand. Typically, a logo's design is for immediate recognition. The logo is one aspect of a company's commercial brand, or economic or academic entity, and its shapes, colors, fonts, and images usually are different from others in a similar market. Logos are also used to identify organizations and other non-commercial entities.
Manipulate the image: Change the image electronically in some way—resize, change the resolution, remove color, sharpen, clean up, edit, convert the file format, etc.
Maquette: A small preliminary model (as of a sculpture or a building).
Mass: The outside size and bulk of a form, such as a building or a sculpture; the visual weight of an object.
Media: Plural of medium , referring to materials used to make art; categories of art (e.g., painting, sculpture, film).
Media Art: is a generic term used to describe art related to, or created with, a technology invented or made widely available since the mid-20th Century. The term differentiates itself by its resulting cultural objects, which can be seen in opposition to those deriving from old media arts (i.e. traditional painting, sculpture, etc.) New Media concerns are often derived from the telecommunications, mass media and digital modes of delivery the artworks involve, with practices ranging from conceptual to virtual art, performance to installation. The term is generally applied to disciplines such as: Cell phone art, Computer art, Digital art, Electronic art, Information art, Interactive art, Internet art, Performance art, Robotic art, Software art, Sound art, Video art, and Video Game Art etc.
Megabyte: (MB) A unit of measurement equal to 1 million bytes or 1,024 kilobytes or 1,048,576 bytes
Middle ground: Area of a two-dimensional work of art between foreground and background.
Mixed media: A work of art for which more than one type of art material is used to create the finished piece.
Monochromatic: A color scheme involving the use of only one hue that can vary in value or intensity.
Mood: The state of mind or feeling communicated in a work of art, frequently through color.
Motif: A unit repeated over and over in a pattern. The repeated motif often creates a sense of rhythm.
Movement: The principle of design dealing with the creation of action.
Multimedia: Computer programs that involve users in the design and organization of text, graphics, video, and sound in one presentation.
Natural Expression: The subject's expression should be natural, with both eyes open. Please refer to the photographs found on this website for acceptable facial expressions.
Negative: The developed film that contains a reversed tone image of the original scene.
Negative: Refers to shapes or spaces that are or represent areas unoccupied by objects.
Neutral colors: The colors black, white, gray, and variations of brown. They are included in the color family called earth colors.
Nonobjective: Having no recognizable object as an image. Also called nonrepresentational.
Observational drawing skills: Skills learned while observing firsthand the object, figure, or place.
Oil Paint: Paint made of pigment mixed with oil usually linseed. The oil serves to keep the paint fluid for a period of time and then as a drying and hardening agent.
One-point perspective: A way to show three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional surface. Lines appear to go away from the viewer and meet at a single point on the horizon known as the vanishing point.
Organic: Refers to shapes or forms having irregular edges or to surfaces or objects resembling things existing in nature.
Output resolution: The detail and clarity (achieved by closeness of dots) with which the image will be displayed or printed (dependent on the capability of the display or printing device).
Over-exposure: Refers to a condition where too much light reaches the film or digital camera sensor, either because it is too bright or has been applied too long, resulting in a very light photograph.
Paronomasia: the use of a word in different senses or the use of words similar in sound to achieve a specific effect, as humor or a dual meaning; punning.
Pattern: Anything repeated in a predictable combination.
PDF: (Portable Document Format) A file format designed to enable printing and viewing of documents with all their formatting (typefaces, images, layout, etc.) appearing the same regardless of what operating system is used, so a PDF document should look the same on Windows, Macintosh, linux, OS/2, etc. The PDF format is based on the widely used Postcript document-description language. Both PDF and Postscript were developed by the Adobe Corporation.
Performance art: A type of art in which events are planned and enacted before an audience for aesthetic reasons.
Perspective: A system for representing three-dimensional objects viewed in spatial recession on a two-dimensional surface.
Photo Restoration: The practice of restoring a photograph which has been damaged or affected by age.
Photomontage: The process and result of making a composite photograph by cutting and joining a number of other photographs together.
Photography: The art or process of producing pictures by the action of light on surfaces sensitized by various processes.
Photoshop: Software developed by Adobe, which allows manipulation and editing (enhancing, resizing, cropping, etc.) of digital images.
Pixel: Short for picture element; a single picture element of a digital photo or displayed image. Taken together, all of the millions of pixels form a grid that represents the content of the image.
Pixelization: The graininess in an image that results when the pixels are too big, relative to the size of the image.
Platen: The glass surface of a flatbed scanner.
PNG: (Portable Network Graphics) PNG is a graphics format specifically designed for use on the World Wide Web. PNG enable compression of images without any loss of quality, including high-resolution images. Another important feature of PNG is that anyone may create software that works with PNG images without paying any fees - the PNG standard is free of any licensing costs.
Point of view: The angle from which the viewer sees the objects or scene.
Portfolio: A systematic, organized collection of student work.
Portrait: Image of a person, especially the face and upper body.
Positive: Shapes or spaces that are or represent solid objects.
Posterization: the effect produced when a photographic image is displayed or printed with too few colors or shades of gray; the opposite of continuous-tone.
PPI: Short for pixels per inch; the measurement of resolution for displaying or printing digital images. See also: Dpi (dots per inch)
Primary colors: Refers to the colors red, yellow, and blue. From these all other colors are created.
Principles of design: The organization of works of art. They involve the ways in which the elements of art are arranged (balance, contrast, dominance, emphasis, movement, repetition, rhythm, subordination, variation, unity).
Printing: Producing the final photo of the captured image which should enable fine facial features to be discernable, whether the print results from conventional photographic processes or digital printout. The resulting print should exhibit a continuous-tone quality regardless of the print method used.
Printmaking: The transferring of an inked image from one surface (from the plate or block) to another (usually paper).
Proper Lighting: The type and position of lighting for both the subject and background so that the subject is clearly illuminated with no shadows on the face or the background.
Properties of color: Characteristics of colors: hue, value, intensity.
Proportion: The size relationships of one part to the whole and of one part to another.
Quilt: to stitch together (two pieces of cloth and a soft interlining), usually in an ornamental pattern.
RAM: Random Access Memory holds the operating system, applications, and data that are currently being used. The more RAM you have, the more programs you can open at once. Its contents are lost when you turn off the power or if there is a momentary power failure. This is why every 10 minutes or so you save you work to the hard disk.
Raster graphics: Computer graphics that are stored in the computer memory by using a map to record data (such as color and intensity) for every pixel that makes up the image. When transformed (enlarged, rotated, stretched, and so on), raster graphics become ragged and suffer loss of picture resolution, unlike vector graphics. Raster graphics are typically used for painting applications, which allow the user to create artwork on a computer screen much as if they were painting on paper or canvas.
Realism: In the 1800s, the Industrial Revolution caused many social and economic problems. Jobs were hard to find and working conditions were poor for those lucky enough to find employment. There was growing concern on the part of artists and writers about the plight of ordinary persons at home and at work. This concern was reflected in the style of art that became popular in the mid-nineteenth century. This style was called Realism.
Rectilinear: Formed or enclosed by straight lines to create a rectangle.
Reflectance: The light intensity emitted from a surface in a given direction.
Reflection: Personal and thoughtful consideration of an artwork, an aesthetic experience, or the creative process.
Relief: Sculpture that projects from a flat background.
Renaissance: The Renaissance (1450 - 1600) was great rebirth of humanism. It began in Italy and then spread throughout northern Europe. Art grew tremendously during the Renaissance, led by artists like Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci.
Render: This is the final step of an image transformation or three-dimensional scene through which a new image is refreshed on the screen.
Resize: To change the size of an image by reducing or increasing the resolution and/or the square measurement of the file. [Note: it is not possible to add more data to an image after it is scanned. It is always preferable to scan an image at the size needed rather than to try to increase the size or resolution later.]
Resolution: An expression of image size; the sharpness and clarity of an image, achieved by the closeness of the dots that make up the image. Resolution is expressed for the scanner as samples per inch (spi), for the screen as pixels per inch (ppi), for the printer as dots per inch (dpi). Most people say "dots per inch" when speaking of scanning resolution, (although technically this is not accurate). The more data per inch (samples, pixels, dots) the higher the resolution of the image and the better looking the image will be. Most screens display at a resolution of 72 pixels per inch. Most laser printers print at 300 or 600 dpi.
RGB: (Red, Green and Blue). The computer primary colors from which all other colors are derived. The additive reproduction process mixes various amounts of red, green and blue to produce other colors. Combining one of these additive colors primary colors with another produces the additive secondary colors cyan, magenta and yellow. Combining all three produces white.
Rhythm: Intentional, regular repetition of lines of shapes to achieve a specific repetitious effect or pattern.
Romanticism: In the early 1800s, the drama, struggle and emotion of Romanticism replaced the calm, order and sense. New interests in exotic lands and travel fueled Romanticism. In France, despair followed the Battle of Waterloo in 1815 and was reflected in art of the time. Artists painted soldiers fleeing the battlefield and scenes of death, despair and destruction. Painters chose scandalous and tragic subjects from the news of the day and transferred, in great detail and graphic emotion, these events to canvas.
Rubric: A guide for judgment or scoring; a description of expectations
Scale: Relative size, proportion. Used to determine measurements or dimensions within a design or work of art.
Scanner: A device that takes a picture of an image, breaks it down into dots and records it as a digital file for use with a computer.
Sculpture: A three-dimensional work of art either in the round (to be viewed from all sides) or in bas relief (low relief in which figures protrude slightly from the background).
Secondary colors: Colors that are mixtures of two primaries. Red and yellow make orange, yellow and blue make green, and blue and red make violet.
Self-Portrait: A portrait one draws or paints of oneself.
Server: A computer on a network that can be accessed by other computers on the same network; a server can hold software for several people to use and/or space for people to save and access files.
Shade: Color with black added to it.
Shape: A two-dimensional area or plane that may be open or closed, free-form or geometric. It can be found in nature or is made by humans.
Sharpness: Refers to whether an image appears to be in focus.
Space: The emptiness or area between, around, above, below, or contained within objects. Shapes and forms are defined by the space around and within them, just as spaces are defined by the shapes and forms around and within them.
Still Life: Representation of inanimate objects, such as flowers or fruit, in painting or photography. A painting, picture, or photograph of inanimate objects.
Structure: The way in which parts are arranged or put together to form a whole.
Style: A set of characteristics of the art of a culture, a period, or school of art. It is the characteristic expression of an individual artist.
Stylized: Simplified; exaggerated.
Subject Positioning: The position of the subject with respect to the camera; the subject should be placed in front of the background such that the focal distance from the camera's lens to the subject's face should be no closer than 120 cm.
Subordination: Making an element appear to hold a secondary or lesser importance within a design or work of art.
Subtractive: Refers to sculpting method produced by removing or taking away from the original material (the opposite of additive).
Surrealism: Surrealism is an invented word—"sur" means beyond or farther than, so "surreal" means to go beyond real. It was named this because surrealist art derives much of its meaning from the theories of Dr. Sigmund Freud and the unconscious.
Technique: A specific way to create artwork, often by following a step-by-step procedure.
Tempera: Pigments mixed with a water-soluble base such as casein, size, or egg yolk. Tempera dries with a flat, dull finish.
Terabyte: (TB) A Terabyte = 1,099,511,627,776 bytes (or approximately one trillion bytes). A terabyte is equivalent to 1,000 gigabytes or 1,000,000 megabytes.
Texture: The surface quality of materials, either actual (tactile) or implied (visual). It is one of the elements of art.
Theme: An idea based on a particular subject.
Three-dimensional: Having height, width, and depth. Also referred to as 3-D.
Thumbnail: A small copy of an image (if printed it’s about the size of a thumbnail). Usually used to display many images on the screen at once.
TIFF: (Tagged Image File Format) A type of graphic file format developed for scanning. TIFFs are bitmapped graphics that can contain lots of information about each bit or pixel. TIFFs can be read by both Macintosh and PC/Windows applications. TIFFs save a lot of information for each pixel; they can be very large files.
Tint: Color lightened with white added to it.
Tone: Color shaded or darkened with gray (black plus white), The degree of lightness or darkness in any given area of an art work or photo.
Trojan Horse: A computer program is either hidden inside another program or that masquerades as something it is not in order to trick potential users into running it. For example a program that appears to be a game or image file but in reality performs some other function. The term "Trojan Horse" comes from a possibly mythical ruse of war used by the Greeks sometime between 1500 and 1200 B.C.
Two-dimensional: Having height and width but not depth. Also referred to as 2-D.
Two-point perspective: A system to show three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional surface. The illusion of space and volume utilizes two vanishing points on the horizon line.
Under-exposure: Refers to a condition where too little light reaches the film or digital camera sensor, either because the light is not sufficient or it hasn't been applied long enough; it results in a very dark photograph.
Unity: Total visual effect in a composition achieved by the careful blending of the elements of art and the principles of design.
USB 2.0: (Universal Serial Bus) The newest USB standard which is close in throughput speed to FireWire, up to 400Mb/s.
Value: Lightness or darkness of a hue or neutral color. A value scale shows the range of values from black to white.
Value scale: Scale showing the range of values from black to white and light to dark.
Vanishing point: In perspective drawing, a point at which receding lines seem to converge.
Variety: A principle of art concerned with combining one or more elements of art in different ways to create interest.
Vector graphics: Computer graphics that are stored in the computer memory by using geometric formulae. Vector graphics can be transformed (enlarged, rotated, stretched, and so on) without loss of picture resolution. In these respects vector graphics are superior to raster graphics.
Virtual: Refers to an image produced by the imagination and not existing in reality.
Virus: A chunk of computer programming code that makes copies of itself without any conscious human intervention. Some viruses do more than simply replicate themselves, they might display messages, install other software or files, delete software of files, etc.
Visual literacy: Includes thinking and communication. Visual thinking is the ability to transform thoughts and information into images; visual communication takes place when people are able to construct meaning from the visual image.
Visual metaphor: Images in which characteristics of objects are likened to one another and represented as that other. They are closely related to concepts about symbolism.
Volume: The space within a form (e.g., in architecture, volume refers to the space within a building).
Warm colors: Colors suggesting warmth: red, yellow, and orange.
Wash: Used in watercolor painting, brush drawing, and occasionally in oil painting to describe a broad thin layer of diluted pigment or ink. Also refers to a drawing made in this technique.
Watercolor: Transparent pigment mixed with water. Paintings done with this medium are known as watercolors.
Watermark: In the making of paper, a translucent design impressed on it when still moist by a metal pattern, and visible when the paper is held before light (back-lit). In digital imaging, bits altered within an image to create a pattern which indicates proof of ownership; so a marked image can then be traced.
Web page: A document designed for viewing in a web browser. Typically written in HTML.
Website: A web site is made of one or more web pages, and other information (such as images, sound, and video files, etc.) that is made available through what appears to users as a single web server. Typically all of the pages in a web site share the same basic URL (address).
Wireless LAN: Type of local area network that allows wireless-enabled laptop computers and personal digital assistants to connect to the Internet. (Hot spot
XHTML: Latest version of HTML to be released by the W3 Consortium (World Wide Web Consortium). Most of the markup tags that were available in HTML 4.0 are still available in XHTML. The major development is that the entire language has been rewritten in XML (eXtensible Markup Language)
Z-buffer: Buffer for storing depth information for displaying three-dimensional graphics. (Two-dimensional images may be displayed using x, y coordinates but the third dimension implies x, y, and z.) In a graphics card, z-buffer memory keeps track of which onscreen elements are visible and which are hidden behind other objects.
Zipped file: A file that has been compressed using a ZIP file-comprising program and that contains the .zip file extension.
Hieroglyphs (Sacred Carvings) dating to about 3300 BC, are believed to be the oldest form of writing known to men. They became known in 1799 when a group of French soldiers digging in Rosetta, Egypt discovered a large dark stone (now known as the famous Rosetta Stone). Carved on it were 3 different types of writing (including one in Greek) believed to contain the same message. After delivering the stone to Europe many tried to decrypt and translate the other two messages to the Greek language but were unsuccessful. The hieroglyphs remained a mystery until 1822 when the French Egyptologist, Jean Francois Champollion finally deciphered the two messages. We now know that Hieroglyphs represent single sounds or a combination of them. They are written in rows or columns and are read from top to bottom, left to right, or right to left. When the human or animals symbols are facing left, writing is to be read from the left, hence when facing right start reading from the right. It was also discovered that the name of Kings, Queens and sometimes Gods were written inside a loop called a Cartouche (a double-looped rope tied at one end) to highlight their importance.
Sound as in Apple, Ana
Sound as in Able, Chase
Sound as in Baby, Boy
Sound as in Castle, Cold
Sound as in Center, Nice
Sound as in Chuck, Chip
Sound as in Destiny, Dime
Sound as in Wheel, East
Sound as in Elephant, Elf
Sound as in Free, Food
Sound as in Gasoline, Bagel
Sound as in George, Gem
Sound as in House, Him
Sound as in Pin and/or Fine
Sound as in Jasmine, Jelly
Sound as in Kilo, Sack
Sound as in Lion, Nilo
Sound as in Mary, Some
Sound as in Phone, None
Sound as in Foot, Rude
Sound as in Token, Though
Sound as in Pizza, Soup
Sound as in iPhone, Joseph
Sound as in Queen, Iraq
Sound as in Rose, Caramel
Sound as in Success, Soup
Sound as in Shoe, Rush
Sound as in Tech, Tall
Sound as in Both, Smooth
Sound as in The, Father
Sound as in Tube, Loop
Sound as in Vector, Cover
Sound as in When, West
Sound as in Extra, Phoenix
Sound as in Bye, Yo-yo
Sound as in Zebra, Zodiac
Make your hieroglyphs unique with colors and decorations.
A message from President Obama
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